Sprites, jets, elves and other storm-driven lights

Abbreviation: A word formed by combining some letters or groups of letters beginning with some number of words. For example, STEM is an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Radar stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging. Even laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

the atmosphere: the envelope of gas that surrounds Earth, another planet, or the Moon.

Atmospheric Physics: This field of meteorology is related to climate science. People who work in this field, known as atmospheric physicists, use computers and mathematics to model the properties of Earth’s atmosphere that drive weather and climate.

the atom: basic unit of chemical element. Atoms are composed of a dense nucleus containing positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

aurora: A light show in the sky when energetic particles from the Sun collide with gas molecules in a planet’s upper atmosphere. The best known of these is the Earth’s aurora borealis, or northern lights. On some of the outer gas planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, the combination of rapid rotation and strong magnetic fields leads to high electric currents in the upper atmosphere, above the planet’s poles. This can also cause auroral “light” shows in their upper atmosphere.

chemical: A substance composed of two or more atoms that combine (bond) in a specific ratio and structure. For example, water is a chemical formed when two hydrogen atoms bond with one oxygen atom. Its chemical formula is H2O. can also be an adjective to describe properties of chemical substances that are the result of different reactions between different compounds.

Citizen scientists: Public volunteers — people of all ages and abilities — who participate in research The data these citizen “scientists” collect helps advance research. Allowing the public to participate means that science can obtain data from many more people and places than would be available if collected only by trained scientists.

the cloud: A plume of molecules or particles, such as water droplets, that moves under the action of external forces such as wind, radiation, or water currents. (in atmospheric science) A mass of airborne water droplets and ice crystals that travels as a plume, usually high in the Earth’s atmosphere. Its movement is driven by wind.

spreading out: adj.) spread thinly over a large area; Not concise or focused. (v) scattering light or releasing some substance broadly through a liquid (eg water or air) or some surface (eg membrane).

electrical charge: physical property responsible for electrical energy; It can be negative or positive.

electric field: A region around a charged particle or object in which a force will be exerted on another charged particle or object.

Electrical Engineer: An engineer who designs, builds or analyzes electrical equipment.

electricity: A flow of charge, usually from the movement of negatively charged particles, called electrons.

Electromagnetic: An adjective referring to light radiation, magnetism, or both.

Electromagnetic pulse: Energy waves generated by any powerful, explosive explosion in the atmosphere. They pose no risk to animals including humans. Depending on the emitted wavelength, however, an electromagnetic pulse (or EMP), can disrupt – or destroy – electronic components. EMPs can be naturally produced — such as thunderstorms ELVES (light emission and very low frequency disturbances due to electromagnetic pulse sources). EMPs released by high-altitude bomb blasts (especially nuclear weapons) are more worrisome. Because EMPs travel in all directions from their source, a high-altitude explosion can send them great distances (potentially across much of the entire United States), crippling all electronics within a line-of-sight of the explosion.

electron: a negatively charged particle, usually found orbiting in the outer region of an atom; Also, conductors of electricity in solids.

material: (in chemistry) any of more than one hundred substances for which the smallest unit of each is a single atom. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium, and uranium.

the engineer: A person who uses science and mathematics to solve problems. As a verb, to engineer means to design a device, component, or process that will solve some problem or unmet need.

the environment: the sum or process of all the things that exist around some organism and the conditions that those things create. Environment can refer to the climate and ecosystem in which certain organisms live, or, perhaps, temperature and humidity (or the placement of objects around the object of interest).

excited: (in chemistry and physics) the transfer of energy to one or more outer electrons of an atom. They remain in this high energy state until they shed excess energy by emitting some form of radiation such as light.

frequency: How often some periodic event occurs within a specified time interval. (in physics) the number of wavelengths that occur in a given interval of time.

the color: A hue or shade of a color.

hurricane: A tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and has winds of 119 kilometers (74 miles) per hour or more. When such a storm occurs in the Pacific Ocean, people call it a typhoon.

insight: The ability to gain an accurate and deep understanding of a situation by simply thinking about it rather than deriving a solution through experimentation.

International Space Station: An artificial satellite that orbits the Earth. Operated by the United States and Russia, the station provides a research laboratory from which scientists can conduct experiments in biology, physics and astronomy — and observe Earth.

the thunder: Flashes of light are excited by electrical discharges that occur within clouds or between clouds and something on the Earth’s surface. The electric current can heat the flash of air, which can create a sharp crack in the lightning.

the meteor: (adj. meteoritic) A chunk of rock or metal from space that hits Earth’s atmosphere. In space it is known as a meteor. If seen in the sky, it is a meteor. And when it hits the ground it is called a meteor.

millisecond: One thousandth of a second.

molecule: An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made up of a single type of atom or several types. For example, oxygen in air consists of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2and).

NASA: Short for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Created in 1958, this US company has become a leader in stimulating public interest in space research and space exploration. It was through NASA that the United States sent humans into orbit and eventually to the moon. It has also sent research craft to study the planets and other celestial bodies in our solar system.

intranet: A group of interconnected persons or things. (v.) the act of making connections with other people who work in a particular area or do similar work (such as artists, business leaders or medical-support groups), often by going to expected gatherings of such people and then chatting with them. (n. networking)

to nickel: Number 28 on the periodic table of elements, this hard, silvery element resists oxidation and corrosion. This makes it a good coating for many other materials or for use in multi-metallic alloys.

Nitrogen: A colorless, odorless, and unreactive gaseous element that makes up about 78 percent of Earth’s atmosphere. Its scientific symbol is N. Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen in the form of nitrogen oxides. It comes in two stable forms. Both have 14 protons in their nucleus. But one has 14 neutrons in that nucleus; The other has 15. For this difference, they are nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 (or 14N and 15N).

Physicist: A scientist who studies the nature and properties of matter and energy.

physics: The scientific study of the nature and properties of matter and energy. Classical physics is an explanation of the nature and properties of matter and energy that relies on descriptions such as Newton’s laws of motion. Quantum physics, a field of study that emerged later, is a more accurate way of explaining the motion and behavior of matter. A scientist who works in such fields is known as a physicist.

the planet: A large celestial body that orbits a star but does not produce any visible light against a star.

Radio: refers to radio waves, or devices that receive these transmissions. Radio waves are a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that people often use for long-distance communication. Longer than visible light waves, radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. They are also used in radar. Many astronomical objects also radiate some of their energy as radio waves.

the rocket: Something propelled into the air or through space, sometimes as a weapon of war. A rocket usually rises by burning some fuel and releasing exhaust gases. (v.) Something that flies through space at high speed as if fueled by combustion.

Spawn: to create something quickly.

round: adjective of something that is round (as a sphere).

the stratosphere: The second layer of Earth’s atmosphere, just above the troposphere, or ground layer. The stratosphere extends from about 14 to 64 kilometers (9 to about 31 mi) above sea level.

Tropical: the region near the Earth’s equator. The temperature here is generally warm to hot, throughout the year.

the weather: The state of the atmosphere at a local place and at a particular time. It is usually described in terms of specific characteristics such as air pressure, humidity, humidity, any precipitation (rain, snow or ice), temperature and wind speed. Weather constitutes the actual conditions occurring at any given time and place. It differs from climate, which is a description of the conditions prevailing in some general area during a particular month or season.

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